1. Introduction

This guide describes how to upgrade Keycloak. It is recommended that you start by upgrading the Keycloak server first and Keycloak adapters second.

Before upgrading make sure to read the instructions carefully and carefully review the changes listed in Migration Chanages.

2. Upgrading Keycloak Server

2.1. Preparing for Upgrading

Before you upgrade, be aware of the order in which you need to perform the upgrade steps. Also note potential issues that can occur within the upgrade process. In general, you must upgrade Keycloak server first, and then upgrade the adapters.

  1. Prior to applying the upgrade, handle any open transactions and delete the data/tx-object-store/ transaction directory.

  2. Back up the old installation (configuration, themes, and so on).

  3. Back up the database. For detailed information on how to back up the database, see the documentation for the relational database you???re using.

  4. Upgrade Keycloak server.

    • Testing the upgrade in a non-production environment first, to prevent any installation issues from being exposed in production, is a best practice.

    • Be aware that after the upgrade the database will no longer be compatible with the old server

    • Ensure the upgraded server is functional before upgrading adapters in production.

  5. If you need to revert the upgrade, first restore the old installation, and then restore the database from the backup copy.

  6. Upgrade the adapters.

2.2. Upgrading Keycloak server

It is important that you upgrade Keycloak server before upgrading the adapters.

To upgrade Keycloak server, complete the following steps:

  1. Prior to applying the upgrade, handle any open transactions and delete the data/tx-object-store/ transaction directory.

  2. Download the new server archive

  3. Move the downloaded archive to the desired location.

  4. Extract the archive. This step installs a clean instance of the latest Keycloak release.

  5. For standalone installations, copy the KEYCLOAK_HOME/standalone/ directory from the previous installation over the directory in the new installation.

    For domain installations, copy the KEYCLOAK_HOME/domain/ directory from the previous installation over the directory in the new installation.

    For domain installations, create the empty directory KEYCLOAK_HOME/domain/deployments.

    NOTE: Files in the bin directory should not be overwritten by the files from previous versions. Changes should be made manually.

  6. Copy any custom modules that have been added to the modules directory.

  7. Run the applicable upgrade script below.

2.2.1. Running the Standalone Mode Upgrade Script

To run the upgrade script for standalone mode, complete the following steps:

  1. If you are using a different configuration file than the default one, edit the migration script to specify the new file name.

  2. Stop the server.

  3. Run the upgrade script:

    bin/jboss-cli.sh --file=bin/migrate-standalone.cli

2.2.2. Running the Standalone-High Availability Mode Upgrade Script

For standalone-high availability (HA) mode, all instances must be upgraded at the same time.

To run the upgrade script for standalone-HA mode, complete the following steps:

  1. If you are using a different configuration file than the default one, edit the migration script to specify the new file name.

  2. Stop the server.

  3. Run the upgrade script:

    bin/jboss-cli.sh --file=bin/migrate-standalone-ha.cli

2.2.3. Running the Domain Mode Upgrade Script

For domain mode, all instances must be upgraded at the same time.

To run the upgrade script for domain mode, complete the following steps:

  1. If you have changed the profile name, you must edit the upgrade script to change a variable near the beginning of the script.

  2. Edit the domain script to include the location of the keycloak-server.json file.

  3. Stop the server.

  4. Run the upgrade script on the domain controller only:

    bin/jboss-cli.sh --file=bin/migrate-domain.cli

2.2.4. Running the Domain-clustered Mode Upgrade Script

For domain-clustered mode, all instances must be upgraded at the same time.

To run the upgrade script for domain-clustered mode, complete the following steps:

  1. If you have changed the profile name, you must edit the upgrade script to change a variable near the beginning of the script.

  2. Edit the domain-clustered script to include the location of the keycloak-server.json file.

  3. Stop the server.

  4. Run the upgrade script on the domain controller only:

    bin/jboss-cli.sh --file=bin/migrate-domain-clustered.cli

2.3. Migrating the Database

Keycloak can automatically migrate the database schema, or you can choose to do it manually. By default the database is automatically migrated when you start the new installation for the first time.

2.3.1. Automatic Relational Database Migration

To enable automatic upgrading of the database schema, set the migrationStrategy property value to "update" for the default connectionsJpa provider:

 <spi name="connectionsJpa">
    <provider name="default" enabled="true">
            <property name="migrationStrategy" value="update"/>

Or run this CLI command:


When you start the server with this setting your database is automatically migrated if the database schema has changed in the new version.

2.3.2. Manual Relational Database Migration

To enable manual upgrading of the database schema, set the migrationStrategy property value to "manual" for the default connectionsJpa provider:

 <spi name="connectionsJpa">
    <provider name="default" enabled="true">
            <property name="migrationStrategy" value="manual"/>

Or run this CLI command:


When you start the server with this configuration it checks if the database needs to be migrated. The required changes are written to an SQL file that you can review and manually run against the database. For further details on how to apply this file to the database, see the documentation for the relational database you???re using. After the changes have been written to the file, the server exits.

2.4. Migrating Themes

If you have created any custom themes they must be migrated to the new server. Any changes to the built-in themes might need to be reflected in your custom themes, depending on which aspects you have customized.

You must copy your custom themes from the old server ???themes??? directory to the new server ???themes??? directory. After that you need to review the changes below and consider if the changes need to be applied to your custom theme.

In summary:

  • If you have customized any of the changed templates listed below you need to compare the template from the base theme to see if there are changes you need to apply.

  • If you have customized any of the styles and are extending the Keycloak themes you need to review the changes to the styles. If you are extending the base theme you can skip this step.

  • If you have customized messages you might need to change the key or value or to add additional messages.

2.4.1. Migrating Templates

If you have customized any of the templates you need to carefully review the changes that have been made to the templates to decide if you need to apply these changes to your customized templates. Most likely you will need to apply the same changes to your customized templates. If you have not customized any of the listed templates you can skip this section.

A best practice is to use a diff tool to compare the templates to see what changes you might need to make to your customized template. If you have only made minor changes it is simpler to compare the updated template to your customized template. However, if you have made many changes it might be easier to compare the new template to your customized old template, as this will show you what changes you need to make.

The following screenshot compares the info.ftl template from the Login theme and an example custom theme:

Comparison of the updated version of a Login theme template with an example custom Login theme template

theme migration meld info 1

From this comparison it is easy to identify that the first change (???Hello world!!???) was a customization, while the second change (???if pageRedirectUri???) is a change to the base theme. By copying the second change to your custom template, you have successfully updated your customized template.

For the alternative approach the following screenshot compares the info.ftl template from the old installation with the updated info.ftl template from the new installation:

Comparison of an example custom Login theme template with the updated version of the Login theme template

theme migration meld info 2

From this comparison it is easy to identify what has been changed in the base template. You will then manually have to make the same changes to your modified template. Since this approach is not as simple as the first approach, only use this approach if the first one is not feasible.

2.4.2. Migrating Messages

If you have added support for another language, you need to apply all the changes listed above. If you have not added support for another language, you might not need to change anything; you only have to make changes if you have changed an affected message in your theme.

For added values, review the value of the message in the base theme to determine if you need to customize that message.

For renamed keys, rename the key in your custom theme.

For changed values, check the value in the base theme to determine if you need to make changes to your custom theme.

2.4.3. Migrating Styles

If you are inheriting styles from the keycloak or rh-sso themes you might need to update your custom styles to reflect changes made to the styles from the built-in themes.

A best practice is to use a diff tool to compare the changes to stylesheets between the old server installation and the new server installation.

For example, using the diff command:

$ diff KEYCLOAK_HOME_OLD/themes/keycloak/login/resources/css/login.css \

Review the changes and determine if they affect your custom styling.

3. Upgrading Keycloak Adapters

It is important that you upgrade Keycloak server first, and then upgrade the adapters. Earlier versions of the adapter might work with later versions of Keycloak server, but earlier versions of Keycloak server might not work with later versions of the adapter.

3.1. Compatibility with older adapters

As mentioned above, we try to support newer release versions of Keycloak server working with older release versions of the adapters. However, in some cases we need to include fixes on the Keycloak server side which may break compatibility with older versions of the adapters. For example, when we implement new aspects of the OpenID Connect specification, which older client adapter versions were not aware of.

In those cases, we added Compatibility modes. For OpenId Connect clients, there is a section named OpenID Connect Compatibility Modes in the Keycloak admin console, on the page with client details. Here, you can disable some new aspects of the Keycloak server to preserve compatibility with older client adapters. More details are available in the tool tips of individual switches.

3.2. Upgrading the EAP Adapter

To upgrade the WildFly adapter, complete the following steps:

  1. Download the new adapter archive.

  2. Remove the previous adapter modules by deleting the WILDFLY_HOME/modules/system/add-ons/keycloak/ directory.

  3. Unzip the downloaded archive into WILDFLY_HOME.

3.3. Upgrading the JavaScript Adapter

To upgrade a JavaScript adapter that has been copied to your web application, complete the following steps:

  1. Download the new adapter archive.

  2. Overwrite the keycloak.js file in your application with the keycloak.js file from the downloaded archive.

3.4. Upgrading the Node.js Adapter

To upgrade a Node.js adapter that has been copied to your web application, complete the following steps:

  1. Download the new adapter archive.

  2. Remove the existing Node.js adapter directory

  3. Unzip the updated file into its place

  4. Change the dependency for keycloak-connect in the package.json of your application

4. Migration Changes

4.1. Migrating to 4.4.0

4.1.1. Upgrade to Wildfly 13

The Keycloak server was upgraded to use Wildfly 13 as the underlying container. This does not directly involve any specific Keycloak server functionality, but there are few changes related to the migration, which worth mentioning.

Dependency updates

The dependencies were updated to the versions used by Wildfly 13 server. For example, Infinispan is now 9.2.4.Final and Undertow is 2.0.9.Final

Configuration changes

There are few configuration changes in the standalone(-ha).xml and domain.xml files. You should follow the Upgrading Keycloak server section to handle the migration of configuration files automatically. If more detail is needed, because, for example, you did some configuration changes on your own, here is a list of the most important changes:

  • Element eviction on infinispan caches is now deprecated (unused) and was replaced by element object-memory

  • There is no jndi-attribute on cache-container element in infinispan subsystem.

Cross-Datacenter Replication changes
  • You will need to upgrade Infinispan server to version 9.2.4. The older version may still work, but it is not guaranteed as we don’t test it anymore.

  • You don’t need to configure security anymore in the Infinispan server configuration file.

  • There is a need to remove transaction element from the configuration of replicated caches in the Infinispan server configuration file. This is needed because of the infinispan bug https://issues.jboss.org/browse/ISPN-9323.

4.2. Migration to 4.3.0

4.2.1. Hostname configuration

In previous versions it was recommended to use a filter to specify permitted hostnames. It is now possible to set a fixed hostname which makes it easier to make sure the valid hostname is used and also allows internal applications to invoke Keycloak through an alternative URL, for example an internal IP address. It is recommended that you switch to this approach in production.

4.3. Migrating to 4.0.0

4.3.1. Client Templates changed to Client Scopes

We added support for Client Scopes, which requires some attention during migration.

Client Templates changed to Client Scopes

Client Templates were changed to Client Scopes. If you had any Client Templates, their protocol mappers and role scope mappings will be preserved.

Spaces replaced in the names

Client templates with the space character in the name were renamed by replacing spaces with an underscore, because spaces are not allowed in the name of client scopes. For example, a client template my template will be changed to client scope my_template.

Linking Client Scopes to Clients

For clients which had the client template, the corresponding client scope is now added as Default Client Scope to the client. So protocol mappers and role scope mappings will be preserved on the client.

Realm Default Client Scopes not linked with existing clients

During the migration, the list of built-in client scopes is added to each realm as well as list of Realm Default Client Scopes. However, existing clients are NOT upgraded and new client scopes are NOT automatically added to them. Also all the protocol mappers and role scope mappings are kept on existing clients. In the new version, when you create a new client, it automatically has Realm Default Client Scopes attached to it and it does not have any protocol mappers attached to it. We did not change existing clients during migration as it would be impossible to properly detect customizations, which you will have for protocol mappers of the clients, for example. If you want to update existing clients (remove protocol mappers from them and link them with client scopes), you will need to do it manually.

Consents need to be confirmed again

The client scopes change required the refactoring of consents. Consents now point to client scopes, not to roles or protocol mappers. Because of this change, the previously confirmed persistent consents by users are not valid anymore and users need to confirm the consent page again after the migration.

Some configuration switches removed

The switch Scope Param Required was removed from Role Detail. The switches Consent Required and Consent Text were removed from the Protocol Mapper details. Those switches were replaced by the Client Scope feature.

4.3.2. Changes to Authorization Services

We added support for UMA 2.0. This version of the UMA specification introduced some important changes on how permissions are obtained from the server.

Here are the main changes introduced by UMA 2.0 support. See Authorization Services Guide for details.

Authorization API was removed

Prior to UMA 2.0 (UMA 1.0), client applications were using the Authorization API to obtain permissions from the server in the format of a RPT. The new version of UMA specification has removed the Authorization API which was also removed from Keycloak. In UMA 2.0, RPTs can now be obtained from the token endpoint by using a specific grant type. See Authorization Services Guide for details.

Entitlement API was removed

With the introduction of UMA 2.0, we decided to leverage the token endpoint and UMA grant type to allow obtaining RPTs from Keycloak and avoid having different APIs. The functionality provided by the Entitlement API was kept the same and is still possible to obtain permissions for a set of one or more resources and scopes or all permissions from the server in case no resource or scope is provided. See Authorization Services Guide for details.

Changes to UMA Discovery Endpoint

UMA Discovery document changed, see Authorization Services Guide for details.

Changes to Keycloak Authorization JavaScript Adapter

The Keycloak Authorization JavaScript Adapter (keycloak-authz.js) changed in order to comply with the changes introduced by UMA 2.0 while keeping the same behavior as before. The main change is on how you invoke both authorization and entitlement methods which now expect a specific object type representing an authorization request. This new object type provides more flexibility on how permissions can be obtained from the server by supporting the different parameters supported by the UMA grant type. See Authorization Services Guide for details.

One of the main changes introduced by this release is that you are no longer required to exchange access tokens with RPTs in
order to access resources protected by a resource server (when not using UMA). Depending on how the policy enforcer is configured on the resource server side, you can just send regular
access tokens as a bearer token and permissions will still be enforced.
Changes to Keycloak Authorization Client Java API

When upgrading to the new version of Keycloak Authorization Client Java API, you’ll notice that some representation classes were moved to a different package in org.keycloak:keycloak-core.

4.4. Migrating to 3.4.2

4.4.1. Added session_state parameter to OpenID Connect Authentication Response

The OpenID Connect Session Management specification requires that the parameter session_state is present in the OpenID Connect Authentication Response.

In past releases, we did not have this parameter, but now Keycloak adds this parameter by default, as required by the specification.

However, some OpenID Connect / OAuth2 adapters, and especially older Keycloak adapters, may have issues with this new parameter.

For example, the parameter will be always present in the browser URL after successful authentication to the client application. In these cases, it may be useful to disable adding the session_state parameter to the authentication response. This can be done for the particular client in the Keycloak admin console, in client details in the section with OpenID Connect Compatibility Modes, described in Compatibility with older adapters. There is the Exclude Session State From Authentication Response switch, which can be turned on to prevent adding the session_state parameter to the Authentication Response.

The parameter session_state was added in 3.4.2, however the switch Exclude Session State From Authentication Response was added in 4.0.0.Beta1. If your Keycloak server is on 3.4.2 or 3.4.3 and you have issues with session_state parameter, you will need to upgrade the server to 4.0.0.Beta1 or newer.

4.5. Migrating to 3.2.0

4.5.1. New Password Hashing algorithms

We’ve added two new password hashing algorithms (pbkdf2-sha256 and pbkdf2-sha512). New realms will use the pbkdf2-sha256 hashing algorithm with 27500 hashing iterations. Since pbkdf2-sha256 is slightly faster than pbkdf2 the iterations was increased to 27500 from 20000.

Existing realms are upgraded if the password policy contains the default value for hashing algorithm (not specified) and iteration (20000). If you have changed the hashing iterations you need to manually change to pbkdf2-sha256 if you’d like to use the more secure hashing algorithm.

4.5.2. ID Token requires scope=openid

OpenID Connect specification requires that parameter scope with value openid is used in initial authorization request. So in Keycloak 2.1.0 we changed our adapters to use scope=openid in the redirect URI to Keycloak. Now we changed the server part too and ID token will be sent to the application just if scope=openid is really used. If it’s not used, then ID token will be skipped and just Access token and Refresh token will be sent to the application. This also allows that you can ommit the generation of ID Token on purpose - for example for space or performance purposes.

Direct grants (OAuth2 Resource Owner Password Credentials Grant) and Service accounts login (OAuth2 Client credentials grant) also don’t use ID Token by default now. You need to explicitly add scope=openid parameter to have ID Token included.

4.5.3. Authentication sessions and Action tokens

We are working on support for multiple datacenters. As the initial step, we introduced authentication session and action tokens. Authentication session replaces Client session, which was used in previous versions. Action tokens are currently used especially for the scenarios, where the authenticator or requiredActionProvider requires sending email to the user and requires user to click on the link in email.

Here are concrete changes related to this, which may affect you for the migration.

First change related to this is introducing new Infinispan caches authenticationSessions and actionTokens in standalone.xml or standalone-ha.xml. If you use our migration CLI, you don’t need to care much as your standalone(-ha).xml files will be migrated automatically.

Second change is changing of some signatures in methods of authentication SPI. This may affect you if you use custom Authenticator or RequiredActionProvider. Classes AuthenticationFlowContext and RequiredActionContext now allow to retrieve authentication session instead of client session.

We also added some initial support for sticky sessions. You may want to change your loadbalancer/proxy server and configure it if you don’t want to suffer from it and want to have better performance. The route is added to the new AUTH_SESSION_ID cookie. More info in the clustering documentation.

Another change is, that token.getClientSession() was removed. This may affect you for example if you’re using Client Initiated Identity Broker Linking feature.

The ScriptBasedAuthenticator changed the binding name from clientSession to authenticationSession, so you would need to update your scripts if you’re using this authenticator.

Finally we added some new timeouts to the admin console. This allows you for example to specify different timeouts for the email actions triggered by admin and by user himself.

4.6. Migrating to 2.5.1

4.6.1. Migration of old offline tokens

If you migrate from version 2.2.0 or older and you used offline tokens, then your offline tokens didn’t have KID in the token header. We added KID to the token header in 2.3.0 together with the ability to have multiple realm keys, so Keycloak is able to find the correct key based on the token KID.

For the offline tokens without KID, Keycloak 2.5.1 will always use the active realm key to find the proper key for the token verification. In other words, migration of old offline tokens will work. So for example, your user requested offline token in 1.9.8, then you migrate from 1.9.8 to 2.5.1 and then your user will be still able to refresh his old offline token in 2.5.1 version.

But there is limitation, that once you change the realm active key, the users won’t be able to refresh old offline tokens anymore. So you shouldn’t change the active realm key until all your users with offline tokens refreshed their tokens. Obviously newly refreshed tokens will have KID in the header, so after all users exchange their old offline tokens, you are free to change the active realm key.

4.7. Migrating to 2.5.0

4.7.1. Changes to the Infinispan caches

The realms cache defined in the infinispan subsystem in standalone.xml or standalone-ha.xml configuration file, now has the eviction with the 10000 records by default. This is the same default like the users cache.

Also the authorization cache now doesn’t have any eviction on it by default.

4.8. Migrating to 2.4.0

4.8.1. Server SPI split into Server SPI and Sever SPI Private

The keycloak-server-spi module has been split into keycloak-server-spi and keycloak-server-spi-private. APIs within keycloak-server-spi will not change between minor releases, while we reserve the right and may quite likely change APIs in keycloak-server-spi-private between minor releases.

4.8.2. Key encryption algorithm in SAML assertions

Key in SAML assertions and documents are now encrypted using RSA-OAEP encryption scheme. If you want to use encrypted assertions, make sure that service providers understand this encryption scheme. In the unlikely case that SP would not be able to handle the new scheme, Keycloak can be made to use legacy RSA-v1.5 encryption scheme when started with system property keycloak.saml.key_trans.rsa_v1.5 set to true.

4.8.3. Infinispan caches realms and users are always local

Even if you use Keycloak in cluster, the caches realms and users defined in infinispan subsystem in standalone-ha.xml are always local caches now. There is separate cache work, which handles sending invalidation messages between cluster nodes and informing whole cluster what records in underlying realms and users caches should be invalidated.

4.9. Migrating to 2.3.0

4.9.1. Default max results on paginated endpoints

All Admin REST API endpoints that support pagination now have a default max results set to 100. If you want to return more than 100 entries you need to explicitly specify that with ?max=<RESULTS>.

In 2.3.0 release we added support for Public Key Rotation. When admin rotates the realm keys in Keycloak admin console, the Client Adapter will be able to recognize it and automatically download new public key from Keycloak. However this automatic download of new keys is done just if you don’t have realm-public-key option in your adapter with the hardcoded public key. For this reason, we don’t recommend to use realm-public-key option in adapter configuration anymore.

Note this option is still supported, but it may be useful just if you really want to have hardcoded public key in your adapter configuration and never download the public key from Keycloak. In theory, one reason for this can be to avoid man-in-the-middle attack if you have untrusted network between adapter and Keycloak, however in that case, it is much better option to use HTTPS, which will secure all the requests between adapter and Keycloak.

4.9.3. Added Infinispan cache keys

In this release, we added new cache keys to the infinispan subsystem, which is defined in standalone.xml or standalone-ha.xml configuration file. It has also some eviction and expiration defined. This cache is internally used for caching the external public keys of the entities trusted by the server (Identity providers or clients, which uses authentication with signed JWT).

4.10. Migrating to 2.2.0

4.10.1. databaseSchema property deprecated

The databaseSchema property for both JPA and Mongo is now deprecated and has been replaced by initializeEmpty and migrationStrategy. initializeEmpty can bet set to true or false and controls if an empty database should be initialized. migrationStrategy can be set to update, validate and manual. manual is only supported for relational databases and will write an SQL file with the required changes to the database schema. Please note that for Oracle database, the created SQL file contains SET DEFINE OFF command understood by Oracle SQL clients. Should the script be consumed by any other client, please replace the lines with equivalent command of the tool of your choice that disables variable expansion or remove it completely if such functionality is not applicable.

4.10.2. Changes in Client’s Valid Redirect URIs

The following scenarios are affected:

  • When a Valid Redirect URI with query component is saved in a Client (e.g. http://localhost/auth?foo=bar), redirect_uri in authorization request must exactly match this URI (or other registered URI in this Client).

  • When a Valid Redirect URI without a query component is saved in a Client, redirect_uri must exactly match as well.

  • Wildcards in registered Valid Redirect URIs are no longer supported when query component is present in this URI, so the redirect_uri needs to exactly match this saved URI as well.

  • Fragments in registered Valid Redirect URIs (like http://localhost/auth#fragment) are no longer allowed.

4.10.3. Authenticate by default removed from Identity Providers

Identity providers no longer has an option to set it as a default authenticaton provider. Instead go to Authentication, select the Browser flow and configure the Identity Provider Redirector. It has an option to set the default identity provider.

4.11. Migrating to 2.0.0

4.11.1. Upgrading from 1.0.0.Final no longer supported

Upgrading from 1.0.0.Final is no longer supported. To upgrade to this version upgrade to 1.9.8.Final prior to upgrading to 2.0.0.

4.12. Migrating to 1.9.5

4.12.1. Default password hashing interval increased to 20K

The default password hashing interval for new realms has been increased to 20K (from 1 previously). This change will have an impact on performance when users authenticate. For example with the old default (1) it takes less than 1 ms to hash a password, but with the new default (20K) the same operation can take 50-100 ms.

4.13. Migrating to 1.9.3

4.13.1. Add User script renamed

The script to add admin users to Keycloak has been renamed to add-user-keycloak.

4.14. Migrating to 1.9.2

4.14.1. Adapter option auth-server-url-for-backend-requests removed

We’ve removed the option auth-server-url-for-backend-requests as there were issues in some scenarios when it was used. In more details, it was possible to access the Keycloak server from 2 different contexts (internal and external), which was causing issues in token validations etc.

If you still want to use the optimization of network, which this option provided (avoid the application to send backchannel requests through loadbalancer but send them to local Keycloak server directly) you may need to handle it at hosts configuration (DNS) level.

4.15. Migrating to 1.9.0

4.15.1. Themes and providers directory moved

We’ve moved the themes and providers directories from standalone/configuration/themes and standalone/configuration/providers to themes and providers respectively. If you have added custom themes and providers you need to move them to the new location. You also need to update keycloak-server.json as it’s changed due to this.

4.15.2. Adapter Subsystems only bring in dependencies if Keycloak is on

Previously, if you had installed our SAML or OIDC Keycloak subsystem adapters into WildFly or JBoss EAP, we would automatically include Keycloak client jars into EVERY application irregardless if you were using Keycloak or not. These libraries are now only added to your deployment if you have Keycloak authentication turned on for that adapter (via the subsystem, or auth-method in web.xml)

4.15.3. Client Registration service endpoints moved

The Client Registration service endpoints have been moved from {realm-name}/clients to {realm-name}/clients-registrations.

4.15.4. Session state parameter in authentication response renamed

In the OpenID Connect authentication response we used to return the session state as session-state this is not correct according to the specification and has been renamed to session_state.

4.15.5. Deprecated OpenID Connect endpoints

In 1.2 we deprecated a number of endpoints that where not consistent with the OpenID Connect specifications, these have now been removed. This also applies to the validate token endpoints that was replaced with the new introspect endpoint in 1.8.

4.15.6. Updates to theme templates

Feedback in template.ftl has been moved and format has changed slightly.

4.15.7. Module and Source Code Re-org

Most of our modules and source code have been consolidated into two maven modules: keycloak-server-spi and keycloak-services. SPI interfaces are in server-spi, implementations are in keycloak-services. All JPA dependent modules have been consolidated under keycloak-model-jpa. Same goes with mongo and Infinispan under modules keycloak-model-mongo and keycloak-model-infinispan.

4.15.8. For adapters, session id changed after login

To plug a security attack vector, for platforms that support it (Tomcat 8, Undertow/WildFly, Jetty 9), the Keycloak OIDC and SAML adapters will change the session id after login. You can turn off this behavior check adapter config switches.

4.15.9. SAML SP Client Adapter Changes

Keycloak SAML SP Client Adapter now requires a specific endpoint, /saml to be registered with your IDP.

4.16. Migrating to 1.8.0

4.16.1. Admin account

In previous releases we shipped with a default admin user with a default password, this has now been removed. If you are doing a new installation of 1.8 you will have to create an admin user as a first step.

4.16.2. OAuth2 Token Introspection

In order to add more compliance with OAuth2 specification, we added a new endpoint for token introspection. The new endpoint can reached at /realms/{realm-name}/protocols/openid-connect/token/introspect and it is solely based on RFC-7662.

The /realms/{realm-name}/protocols/openid-connect/validate endpoint is now deprecated and we strongly recommend you to move to the new introspection endpoint as soon as possible. The reason for this change is that RFC-7662 provides a more standard and secure introspection endpoint.

The new token introspection URL can now be obtained from OpenID Connect Provider’s configuration at /realms/{realm-name}/.well-known/openid-configuration. There you will find a claim with name token_introspection_endpoint within the response. Only confidential clients are allowed to invoke the new endpoint, where these clients will be usually acting as a resource server and looking for token metadata in order to perform local authorization checks.

4.17. Migrating to 1.7.0.CR1

4.17.1. Direct access grants disabled by default for clients

In order to add more compliance with OpenID Connect specification, we added flags into admin console to Client Settings page, where you can enable/disable various kinds of OpenID Connect/OAuth2 flows (Standard flow, Implicit flow, Direct Access Grants, Service Accounts). As part of this, we have Direct Access Grants (corresponds to OAuth2 Resource Owner Password Credentials Grant) disabled by default for new clients.

Clients migrated from previous version have Direct Access Grants enabled just if they had flag Direct Grants Only on. The Direct Grants Only flag was removed as if you enable Direct Access Grants and disable both Standard+Implicit flow, you will achieve same effect.

We also added built-in client admin-cli to each realm. This client has Direct Access Grants enabled. So if you’re using Admin REST API or Keycloak admin-client, you should update your configuration to use admin-cli instead of security-admin-console as the latter one doesn’t have direct access grants enabled anymore by default.

4.17.2. Option 'Update Profile On First Login' moved from Identity provider to Review Profile authenticator

In this version, we added First Broker Login, which allows you to specify what exactly should be done when new user is logged through Identity provider (or Social provider), but there is no existing Keycloak user yet linked to the social account. As part of this work, we added option First Login Flow to identity providers where you can specify the flow and then you can configure this flow under Authentication tab in admin console.

We also removed the option Update Profile On First Login from the Identity provider settings and moved it to the configuration of Review Profile authenticator. So once you specify which flow should be used for your Identity provider (by default it’s First Broker Login flow), you go to Authentication tab, select the flow and then you configure the option under Review Profile authenticator.

4.17.3. Element 'form-error-page' in web.xml not supported anymore

form-error-page in web.xml will no longer work for client adapter authentication errors. You must define an error-page for the various HTTP error codes. See documentation for more details if you want to catch and handle adapter error conditions.

4.17.4. IdentityProviderMapper changes

There is no change in the interface itself or method signatures. However there is some change in behavior. We added First Broker Login flow in this release and the method IdentityProviderMapper.importNewUser is now called after First Broker Login flow is finished. So if you want to have any attribute available in Review Profile page, you would need to use the method preprocessFederatedIdentity instead of importNewUser . You can set any attribute by invoke BrokeredIdentityContext.setUserAttribute and that will be available on Review profile page.

4.18. Migrating to 1.6.0.Final

4.18.1. Option that refresh tokens are not reusable anymore

Old versions of Keycloak allowed reusing refresh tokens multiple times. Keycloak still permits this, but also have an option Revoke refresh token to disallow it. Option is under token settings in admin console. When a refresh token is used to obtain a new access token a new refresh token is also included. When option is enabled, then this new refresh token should be used next time the access token is refreshed. It won’t be possible to reuse old refresh token multiple times.

4.18.2. Some packages renamed

We did a bit of restructure and renamed some packages. It is mainly about renaming internal packages of util classes. The most important classes used in your application ( for example AccessToken or KeycloakSecurityContext ) as well as the SPI are still unchanged. However there is slight chance that you will be affected and will need to update imports of your classes. For example if you are using multitenancy and KeycloakConfigResolver, you will be affected as for example class HttpFacade was moved to different package - it is org.keycloak.adapters.spi.HttpFacade now.

4.18.3. Persisting user sessions

We added support for offline tokens in this release, which means that we are persisting "offline" user sessions into database now. If you are not using offline tokens, nothing will be persisted for you, so you don’t need to care about worse performance for more DB writes. However in all cases, you will need to update standalone/configuration/keycloak-server.json and add userSessionPersister like this:

"userSessionPersister": {
    "provider": "jpa"

If you want sessions to be persisted in Mongo instead of classic RDBMS, use provider mongo instead.

4.19. Migrating to 1.5.0.Final

4.19.1. Realm and User cache providers

Infinispan is now the default and only realm and user cache providers. In non-clustered mode a local Infinispan cache is used. We’ve also removed our custom in-memory cache and the no cache providers. If you have realmCache or userCache set in keycloak-server.json to mem or none please remove these. As Infinispan is the only provider there’s no longer any need for the realmCache and userCache objects so these can be removed.

4.19.2. Uses Session providers

Infinispan is now the default and only user session provider. In non-clustered mode a local Infinispan cache is used. We’ve also removed the JPA and Mongo user session providers. If you have userSession set in keycloak-server.json to mem, jpa or mongo please remove it. As Infinispan is the only provider there’s no longer any need for the userSession object so it can be removed.

For anyone that wants to achieve increased durability of user sessions this can be achieved by configuring the user session cache with more than one owner or use a replicated cache. It’s also possible to configure Infinispan to persist caches, although that would have impacts on performance.

4.19.3. Contact details removed from registration and account management

In the default theme we have now removed the contact details from the registration page and account management. The admin console now lists all the users attributes, not just contact specific attributes. The admin console also has the ability to add/remove attributes to a user. If you want to add contact details, please refer to the address theme included in the examples.

4.20. Migrating to 1.3.0.Final

4.20.1. Direct Grant API always enabled

In the past Direct Grant API (or Resource Owner Password Credentials) was disabled by default and there was an option on a realm to enable it. The Direct Grant API is now always enabled and the option to enable/disable for a realm is removed.

4.20.2. Database changed

There are again few database changes. Remember to backup your database prior to upgrading.

4.20.3. UserFederationProvider changed

There are few minor changes in UserFederationProvider interface. You may need to sync your implementation when upgrade to newer version and upgrade few methods, which has changed signature. Changes are really minor, but were needed to improve performance of federation.

4.20.4. WildFly 9.0.0.Final

Following on from the distribution changes that was done in the last release the standalone download of Keycloak is now based on WildFly 9.0.0.Final. This also affects the overlay which can only be deployed to WildFly 9.0.0.Final or JBoss EAP 6.4.0.GA. WildFly 8.2.0.Final is no longer supported for the server.

4.20.5. WildFly, JBoss EAP and JBoss AS7 adapters

There are now 3 separate adapter downloads for WildFly, JBoss EAP and JBoss AS7:

  • eap6

  • wf9

  • wf8

  • as7

Make sure you grab the correct one.

You also need to update standalone.xml as the extension module and subsystem definition has changed. See {adapterguide_name for details.

4.21. Migrating from 1.2.0.Beta1 to 1.2.0.RC1

4.21.1. Distribution changes

Keycloak is now available in 3 downloads: standalone, overlay and demo bundle. The standalone is intended for production and non-JEE developers. Overlay is aimed at adding Keycloak to an existing WildFly 8.2 or EAP 6.4 installation and is mainly for development. Finally we have a demo (or dev) bundle that is aimed at developers getting started with Keycloak. This bundle contains a WildFly server, with Keycloak server and adapter included. It also contains all documentation and examples.

4.21.2. Database changed

This release contains again a number of changes to the database. The biggest one is Application and OAuth client merge. Remember to backup your database prior to upgrading.

4.21.3. Application and OAuth client merge

Application and OAuth clients are now merged into Clients. The UI of admin console is updated and database as well. Your data from database should be automatically updated. The previously set Applications will be converted into Clients with Consent required switch off and OAuth Clients will be converted into Clients with this switch on.

4.22. Migrating from 1.1.0.Final to 1.2.0.Beta1

4.22.1. Database changed

This release contains a number of changes to the database. Remember to backup your database prior to upgrading.

4.22.2. iss in access and id tokens

The value of iss claim in access and id tokens have changed from realm name to realm url. This is required by OpenID Connect specification. If you’re using our adapters there’s no change required, other than if you’ve been using bearer-only without specifying auth-server-url you have to add it now. If you’re using another library (or RSATokenVerifier) you need to make the corresponding changes when verifying iss.

4.22.3. OpenID Connect endpoints

To comply with OpenID Connect specification the authentication and token endpoints have been changed to having a single authentication endpoint and a single token endpoint. As per-spec response_type and grant_type parameters are used to select the required flow. The old endpoints (/realms/{realm-name}/protocols/openid-connect/login, /realms/{realm-name}/protocols/openid-connect/grants/access, /realms/{realm-name}/protocols/openid-connect/refresh, /realms/{realm-name}/protocols/openid-connect/access/codes) are now deprecated and will be removed in a future version.

4.22.4. Theme changes

The layout of themes have changed. The directory hierarchy used to be type/name this is now changed to name/type. For example a login theme named sunrise used to be deployed to standalone/configuration/themes/login/sunrise, which is now moved to standalone/configuration/themes/sunrise/login. This change was done to make it easier to have groups of the different types for the same theme into one folder.

If you deployed themes as a JAR in the past you had to create a custom theme loader which required Java code. This has been simplified to only requiring a plain text file (META-INF/keycloak-themes.json) to describe the themes included in a JAR.

4.22.5. Claims changes

Previously there was Claims tab in admin console for application and OAuth clients. This was used to configure which attributes should go into access token for particular application/client. This was removed and replaced with protocol mappers which are more flexible.

You don’t need to care about migration of database from previous version. We did migration scripts for both RDBMS and Mongo, which should ensure that claims configured for particular application/client will be converted into corresponding protocol mappers (Still it’s safer to backup DB before migrating to newer version though). Same applies for exported JSON representation from previous version.

4.22.6. Social migration to identity brokering

We refactored social providers SPI and replaced it with Identity Brokering SPI, which is more flexible. The Social tab in admin console is renamed to Identity Provider tab.

Again you don’t need to care about migration of database from previous version similarly like for Claims/protocol mappers. Both configuration of social providers and "social links" to your users will be converted to corresponding Identity providers.

Only required action from you would be to change allowed Redirect URI in the admin console of particular 3rd party social providers. You can first go to the Keycloak admin console and copy Redirect URI from the page where you configure the identity provider. Then you can simply paste this as allowed Redirect URI to the admin console of 3rd party provider (IE. Facebook admin console).

4.23. Migrating from 1.1.0.Beta1 to 1.1.0.Beta2

  • Adapters are now a separate download. They are not included in appliance and war distribution. We have too many now and the distro is getting bloated.

  • org.keycloak.adapters.tomcat7.KeycloakAuthenticatorValve +org.keycloak.adapters.tomcat.KeycloakAuthenticatorValve

  • JavaScript adapter now has idToken and idTokenParsed properties. If you use idToken to retrieve first name, email, etc. you need to change this to idTokenParsed.

  • The as7-eap-subsystem and keycloak-wildfly-subsystem have been merged into one keycloak-subsystem. If you have an existing standalone.xml or domain.xml, you will need edit near the top of the file and change the extension module name to org.keycloak.keycloak-subsystem. For AS7 only, the extension module name is org.keycloak.keycloak-as7-subsystem.

  • Server installation is no longer supported on AS7. You can still use AS7 as an application client.

4.24. Migrating from 1.0.x.Final to 1.1.0.Beta1

  • RealmModel JPA and Mongo storage schema has changed

  • UserSessionModel JPA and Mongo storage schema has changed as these interfaces have been refactored

  • Upgrade your adapters, old adapters are not compatible with Keycloak 1.1. We interpreted JSON Web Token and OIDC ID Token specification incorrectly. 'aud' claim must be the client id, we were storing the realm name in there and validating it.

4.25. Migrating from 1.0 RC-1 to RC-2

  • A lot of info level logging has been changed to debug. Also, a realm no longer has the jboss-logging audit listener by default. If you want log output when users login, logout, change passwords, etc. enable the jboss-logging audit listener through the admin console.

4.26. Migrating from 1.0 Beta 4 to RC-1

  • logout REST API has been refactored. The GET request on the logout URI does not take a session_state parameter anymore. You must be logged in in order to log out the session. You can also POST to the logout REST URI. This action requires a valid refresh token to perform the logout. The signature is the same as refresh token minus the grant type form parameter. See documentation for details.

4.27. Migrating from 1.0 Beta 1 to Beta 4

  • LDAP/AD configuration is changed. It is no longer under the "Settings" page. It is now under Users→Federation. Add Provider will show you an "ldap" option.

  • Authentication SPI has been removed and rewritten. The new SPI is UserFederationProvider and is more flexible.

  • ssl-not-required +ssl-required +all +external +none

  • DB Schema has changed again.

  • Created applications now have a full scope by default. This means that you don’t have to configure the scope of an application if you don’t want to.

  • Format of JSON file for importing realm data was changed. Now role mappings is available under the JSON record of particular user.

4.28. Migrating from 1.0 Alpha 4 to Beta 1

  • DB Schema has changed. We have added export of the database to Beta 1, but not the ability to import the database from older versions. This will be supported in future releases.

  • For all clients except bearer-only applications, you must specify at least one redirect URI. Keycloak will not allow you to log in unless you have specified a valid redirect URI for that application.

  • Direct Grant API +ON

  • standalone/configuration/keycloak-server.json

  • JavaScript adapter

  • Session Timeout

4.29. Migrating from 1.0 Alpha 2 to Alpha 3

  • SkeletonKeyToken, SkeletonKeyScope, SkeletonKeyPrincipal, and SkeletonKeySession have been renamed to: AccessToken, AccessScope, KeycloakPrincipal, and KeycloakAuthenticatedSession respectively.

  • ServletOAuthClient.getBearerToken() method signature has changed. It now returns an AccessTokenResponse so that you can obtain a refresh token too.

  • Adapters now check the access token expiration with every request. If the token is expired, they will attempt to invoke a refresh on the auth server using a saved refresh token.

  • Subject in AccessToken has been changed to the User ID.

4.30. Migrating from 1.0 Alpha 1 to Alpha 2

  • DB Schema has changed. We don’t have any data migration utilities yet as of Alpha 2.

  • JBoss and WildFly adapters are now installed via a WildFly subsystem. Please review the adapter installation documentation. Edits to standalone.xml are now required.

  • There is a new credential type "secret". Unlike other credential types, it is stored in plain text in the database and can be viewed in the admin console.

  • There is no longer required Application or OAuth Client credentials. These client types are now hard coded to use the "secret" credential type.

  • Because of the "secret" credential change to Application and OAuth Client, you’ll have to update your keycloak.json configuration files and regenarate a secret within the Application or OAuth Client credentials tab in the administration console.