Using a reverse proxy

Learn how to configure Keycloak together with a reverse proxy, api gateway, or load balancer.

Distributed environments frequently require the use of a reverse proxy. For Keycloak, your choice of proxy modes depends on the TLS termination in your environment.

Proxy modes

The following proxy modes are available:

edge

Enables communication through HTTP between the proxy and Keycloak. This mode is suitable for deployments with a highly secure internal network where the reverse proxy keeps a secure connection (HTTP over TLS) with clients while communicating with Keycloak using HTTP.

reencrypt

Requires communication through HTTPS between the proxy and Keycloak. This mode is suitable for deployments where internal communication between the reverse proxy and Keycloak should also be protected. Different keys and certificates are used on the reverse proxy as well as on Keycloak.

passthrough

Enables communication through HTTP or HTTPS between the proxy and Keycloak. This mode is suitable for deployments where the reverse proxy is not terminating TLS. The proxy instead is forwarding requests to the Keycloak server so that secure connections between the server and clients are based on the keys and certificates used by the Keycloak server.

Configure the proxy mode in Keycloak

To select the proxy mode, enter this command:

bin/kc.[sh|bat] start --proxy <mode>

Configure the reverse proxy

Some Keycloak features rely on the assumption that the remote address of the HTTP request connecting to Keycloak is the real IP address of the clients machine.

When you have a reverse proxy or loadbalancer in front of Keycloak, this might not be the case, so please make sure your reverse proxy is configured correctly by performing these actions:

  • Set the X-Forwarded-For, X-Forwarded-Proto, and X-Forwarded-Host HTTP headers.

To set these headers, consult the documentation for your reverse proxy.

Take extra precautions to ensure that the X-Forwarded-For header is set by your reverse proxy. If this header is incorrectly configured, rogue clients can set this header and trick Keycloak into thinking the client is connected from a different IP address than the actual address. This precaution can more be critical if you do any deny or allow listing of IP addresses.

Exposed path recommendations

When using a reverse proxy, Keycloak only requires certain paths need to be exposed. The following table shows the recommended paths to expose.

Keycloak Path Reverse Proxy Path Exposed Reason

/

-

No

When exposing all paths, admin paths are exposed unnecessarily.

/admin/

-

No

Exposed admin paths lead to an unnecessary attack vector.

/js/

-

Yes (see note below)

Access to keycloak.js needed for "internal" clients, e.g. the account console

/welcome/

-

No

No need exists to expose the welcome page after initial installation.

/realms/

/realms/

Yes

This path is needed to work correctly, for example, for OIDC endpoints.

/resources/

/resources/

Yes

This path is needed to serve assets correctly. It may be served from a CDN instead of the Keycloak path.

/robots.txt

/robots.txt

Yes

Search engine rules

/metrics

-

No

Exposed metrics lead to an unnecessary attack vector.

/health

-

No

Exposed health checks lead to an unnecessary attack vector.

Note:
As it’s true that the js path is needed for internal clients like the account console, it’s good practice to use keycloak.js from a JavaScript package manager like npm or yarn for your external clients.

We assume you run Keycloak on the root path / on your reverse proxy/gateway’s public API. If not, prefix the path with your desired one.

Enabling client certificate lookup

When the proxy is configured as a TLS termination proxy the client certificate information can be forwarded to the server through specific HTTP request headers and then used to authenticate clients. You are able to configure how the server is going to retrieve client certificate information depending on the proxy you are using.

The server supports some of the most commons TLS termination proxies such as:

Proxy Provider

Apache HTTP Server

apache

HAProxy

haproxy

NGINX

nginx

To configure how client certificates are retrieved from the requests you need to:

Enable the corresponding proxy provider
bin/kc.[sh|bat] build --spi-x509cert-lookup-provider=<provider>
Configure the HTTP headers
bin/kc.[sh|bat] start --spi-x509cert-lookup-<provider>-ssl-client-cert=SSL_CLIENT_CERT --spi-x509cert-lookup-<provider>-ssl-cert-chain-prefix=CERT_CHAIN --spi-x509cert-lookup-<provider>-certificate-chain-length=10

When configuring the HTTP headers, you need to make sure the values you are using correspond to the name of the headers forwarded by the proxy with the client certificate information.

The available options for configuring a provider are:

Option Description

ssl-client-cert

The name of the header holding the client certificate

ssl-cert-chain-prefix

The prefix of the headers holding additional certificates in the chain and used to retrieve individual certificates accordingly to the length of the chain. For instance, a value CERT_CHAIN will tell the server to load additional certificates from headers CERT_CHAIN_0 to CERT_CHAIN_9 if certificate-chain-length is set to 10.

certificate-chain-length

The maximum length of the certificate chain.

Configuring the NGINX provider

The NGINX SSL/TLS module does not expose the client certificate chain. Keycloak?s NGINX certificate lookup provider rebuilds it by using the Keycloak truststore.

If you are using this provider, please take a look at the Configuring a Truststore guide about how to configure a Keycloak Truststore.

Relevant options

Type Default

proxy

The proxy address forwarding mode if the server is behind a reverse proxy.

Possible values are: edge,reencrypt,passthrough

CLI: --proxy

Env: KC_PROXY

edge, reencrypt, passthrough

none

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